Usage examples


Create a user called “Joe”

new_user = User(user_name="joe")
# At this point new_user becomes a User object, which contains special
# functions that we will describe in this documentation.

Now we have the user Joe, we can generate a security code for the user (useful for sending email validation links). Whilst we are doing this, we can assign him a password


Now we have a user, lets create a group to store users in, lets say Joe is an admin user and so we will create a group called “admins” and add Joe to this group:

new_group = Group(group_name="admins")
# Now new_group becomes a Group object we can access
group_entry = UserGroup(,

So now we have the user Joe as part of the group “admins”, but this on its own does nothing, we now want to let give all members of the admin group permission to access a certain view, for example the view below would only be accessible to users (and groups) who had the permission “delete”:

def delete_users(request):
    # do some stuff

So we can do this one of two ways, we can either add the “delete” permission directly to the user, or assign the delete permission to a group (that the user is part of)

# assign the permission to a group
new_group_permission = GroupPermission(perm_name="delete",
# or assign the permssion directly to a user
new_user_permission = UserPermission(perm_name="delete",

Now we move on to resource permissions, adding a resource that the user will own

resource = SomeResouce()
# Assuming "user" is a User() object

Here we show a demo fo how to add a custom “read” permission for user “foo” for a given resource:

permission = UserResourcePermission()
permission.perm_name = "read"
permission.user_name = "foo"

We can now fetch all resources with permissions “edit”, “vote”:

# assuming "user" is a User() object as described as above

If we have a user object, we can fetch all non-resource based permissions for user:


Given a resource fetching all permissions for user, both direct and inherited from groups user belongs to:


Checking “resourceless” permission like “user can access admin panel:

for perm_user, perm_name in request.user.permissions:
    print(perm_user, perm_name)

Checking all permissions user has to specific resource:

resource = Resource.by_resource_id(rid)
for perm in resource.perms_for_user(user):
    print(perm.user, perm.perm_name, perm.type,, perm.resource, perm.owner)
    .... list acls ....

List all direct permissions that users have for specific resource

from ziggurat_foundations.permissions import ANY_PERMISSION
permissions = ResourceService.users_for_perm(
    resource, perm_name=ANY_PERMISSION, skip_group_perms=True)

Here is an example of how to connect a user to an external identity provider like twitter:

ex_identity = ExternalIdentity()
ex_identity.external_id = XXX
ex_identity.external_user_name = XXX
ex_identity.provider_name = ''
ex_identity.access_token = XXX
ex_identity.token_secret = XXX

Tree Structures


When using populate_instance or any other means to set values on resources remember to NOT modify ordering and parent_id values on the resource rows - always perform tree operations via tree service. Otherwise it will confuse the service and it might perform incorrect operations.

Create a tree structure manager:

from import ResourceTreeService
from import \

TreeService = ResourceTreeService(ResourceTreeServicePostgreSQL)

Create a new resource and place it somewhere:

resource = Resource(...)

# this accounts for the newly inserted row so the total_children
# will be max+1 position for new row
total_children = tree_service.count_children(
    resource.parent_id, db_session=self.request.dbsession)

    resource_id=resource.resource_id, to_position=total_children,

Fetch all resources that are parent of resource:

tree_service.path_upper(resource.resource_id, db_session=db_session)

Fetch all children of a resource limiting the amount of levels to go down, then build a nested dictionary structure out of it:

result = tree_service.from_resource_deeper(
    resource_id, limit_depth=2, db_session=db_session)
tree_struct = tree_service.build_subtree_strut(result)

Delete some resource and all its descendants:


Move node to some other location in tree:

    resource_id=resource.resource_id, new_parent_id=X,
    to_position=Y, db_session=request.dbsession)